Love feels magical and biological—something that just happens to us, something beyond our control.

Research shows, however, that love is better thought of as behavioral—or even transactional.

Yes, hormones play a role, but much more important is how we act with with the object of our affection. We do certain things, and those actions foster the emotions we associate with being in love. According to researcher Barbara Fredrickson, author of Love 2.0, we create our feelings of love, day after day. Or we don’t create them, and love fades.

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So what actions lead to love? Here are three, in honor of Valentine’s Day, all based on fostering vulnerability.

Before you run for the woods, hear me out. Yes, vulnerability can be uncomfortable because it involves, by definition, emotional exposure, uncertainty, and risk. But vulnerability allows trust and intimacy to develop and deepen, creating strong feelings of connection and love.

Action #1: Take a risk together

GGSC Senior Fellow Christine Carter, Ph.D., is the author of the book The Sweet Spot.

Researchers think we tend to unconsciously conflate the high-arousal induced by doing something risky with the high-arousal of intense attraction—the two states feel similar. This creates a similar biochemistry and physiology as when we are first falling in love.

This Valentine’s Day, go straight for that adrenaline rush by doing something risky. Venture to an unknown place that feels a little daunting. Visit a karaoke bar, and actually sing. Try a new sport, one where you risk feeling silly or uncoordinated.

Action #2: Get naked… emotionally

What can you reveal to your partner that they doesn’t already know about you? Ask your date intimate questions to which you aren’t sure you know the answer. We come to like people more when we engage in escalating, gradual back-and-forth “personal self-disclosure.” 

Researchers have long been able to create profound feelings of being in love through self-disclosure (even between strangers!). Check out the 36 questions that Arthur Aron and his colleagues had strangers ask one another to make them feel deeply connected to each other. And don’t forget: How you respond when your partner is making themself vulnerable is also important. (Hint: Turn off your phone and pay attention.)

Action #3: Gaze into each other’s eyes

Directly, for four full minutes. Set a timer. Don’t talk. Breathe. Relax.

This technique has been widely cited as a part of the experiment by Aron and pals (though I haven’t been able to find reference to it in a published study). Other relationship experts have embraced it as a solid tactic for fostering intimacy and love.

For instance, Stanford researcher Fred Luskin has people do this in his workshops and tells me that it definitely creates big feelings of vulnerability—which is good (see #1!). The exposure is terrifying, but that is what we’re after here.

Join the Discussion: What other ideas do you have for making yourself vulnerable with your date on Valentine’s Day? Leave a comment and inspire others.

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