How Self-Compassion Beats Rumination

By Linda Graham | August 20, 2014 | 0 comments

A new study suggests that self-compassion improves mood, largely by helping us avoid negative rumination.

“I can’t do this right,” says my patient Carla. “I know I’m going to fail. I can never do anything right.”  The most innocent wish—to walk in the park, to meet a friend for lunch, to meditate— would trigger this relentlessly harsh inner voice, 24/7.

In our therapy sessions, Carla was ruminating—thinking the same negative worrisome thoughts over and over again.

Rumination usually doesn’t solve what we’re worried about and, in fact, leaves us more vulnerable to staying in a funk, even becoming depressed. Rumination makes our view of events, and our feelings about ourselves, worse.

What is the solution?

We focused on nurturing self-compassion, which means becoming mindfully aware of the pain one feels when experiencing moments of failure, recognizing that such shortcomings are common to all human beings, and then evoking a sense of kindness and care toward one’s self in those moments.

Carla (whose name I have changed) started with a five-day workshop on self-compassion—then continued support for her daily practice through diligent journaling. She would help shift her mood by journaling right in our sessions, writing a compassionate paragraph to herself, or jotting down notes about what was beginning to work for her.

A new study suggests that we were onto something. Natasha Odou and Jay Brinker at the Australian National University found that writing about a negative experience from a self-compassionate stance significantly improved mood by allowing people to process (rather than avoid) negative emotions.

In contrast, participants in the same study who wrote about a negative event in an emotionally expressive way showed a worsening of mood and depressive symptoms. While simply expressing one’s emotions is sometimes advocated as a healthy response to negative events, in this case it may have actually exacerbated ruminative tendencies.

These findings contribute to the growing realization that self-compassion practices generate positive outcomes—more well-being in general, more life satisfaction, personal initiative and social connectedness—and protect us from negative experiences of rumination, self-criticism, shame, anxiety, and depression. 

Odou and Brinker attribute these positive impacts of self-compassion on mood, in part, to the fact that self-compassion is a tool of approaching rather than avoiding emotions, allowing participants to maintain an awareness, exploration, and understanding of them. Rumination, on the other hand, is a kind of emotional avoidance that prevents effective processing of emotions.

They also found that significant improvement in mood occurred after only 10 minutes of practice, meaning that people in therapy, or on their own, could use the exercise to improve their mood soon after a distressing event occurs. While staying aware of and open to their experience in the moment, they could also effectively avoid spinning into a ruminative, depressive downward spiral. They could acknowledge that they make mistakes but didn’t have to feel badly about something that is a common human experience.

Theirs isn’t the only study to come to this conclusion. In a similar study in 2010, Leah Shapira and Myriam Mongrain found that writing a self-compassionate letter once a day for seven days resulted in greater happiness and reduced depression symptom three and six months later.

Odou and Brinker acknowledged that further research needs to be done on the impact of self-compassion practice with people currently experiencing depression, because depression involves factors beyond negative mood that need to be taken into account.

But their findings are important because self-compassion practice and rumination both involve the default mode of processing in the brain, where the mind is free to meander or play, making new associations and links on its own. This study suggests that while the brain is in that mode of processing, a self-compassionate writing exercise allows participants to stay open to and accepting of experience—whereas, in that same mode of processing, writing in an unfiltered, emotionally expressive way leads to the kind of ruminative thinking that simply makes matters worse.

In our therapy sessions, Carla would often begin with a report full of disappointment and discouragement, but as we identified moments of her inner life going well: a delight in a genuine, heartfelt connection with her ailing mother; a moment when she caught herself about to fall down the same negative spiral, put her hand on her heart, and said these phrases to herself instead, “May I be safe. May I be kind to myself. May I have ease of mind and heart.” Through her own skillful coping, she experienced a true care and concern for herself that made her feel better. 

One day, after three months of conscious and sincere effort, Carla came into her session with glee. She had experienced five days of success in a row, compassionately setting her inner ruminator to one side and focusing steadily on self-compassion, whether writing, talking to herself, or talking with a friend. “I can do this! I am doing this!” she told me. “I feel sure, happy, and proud.”

Tracker Pixel for Entry

Greater Good wants to know:
Do you think this article will influence your opinions or behavior?

  • Very Likely

  • Likely

  • Unlikely

  • Very Unlikely

  • Not sure

About The Author

Linda Graham, MFT, is the author of Bouncing Back: Rewiring Your Brain for Maximum Resilience and Well-Being. Subscribe to her newsletter and learn more about her work at


Like this article?

Here's what you can do:

blog comments powered by Disqus



Greater Good Events

The Science of Burnout: What Is It, Why It Happens, and How to Avoid It
International House at UC Berkeley
April 29, 2017
6 CE Hours

The Science of Burnout: What Is It, Why It Happens, and How to Avoid It

A day-long semiar with GGSC Science Director Emiliana Simon-Thomas, Ph.D., celebrated compassion teacher Joan Halifax, burnout expert Christina Maslach, Ph.D., and UCLA psychiatrist Elizabeth Bromley, M.D., Ph.D.


Take a Greater Good Quiz!

How compassionate are you? How generous, grateful, or forgiving? Find out!


Watch Greater Good Videos

Jon Kabat-Zinn

Talks by inspiring speakers like Jon Kabat-Zinn, Dacher Keltner, and Barbara Fredrickson.


Greater Good Resources


Book of the Week

How Pleasure Works By Paul Bloom Bloom explores a broad range of human pleasures from food to sex to religion to music. Bloom argues that human pleasure is not purely an instinctive, superficial, sensory reaction; it has a hidden depth and complexity.

Is she flirting with you? Take the quiz and find out.
"It is a great good and a great gift, this Greater Good. I bow to you for your efforts to bring these uplifting and illuminating expressions of humanity, grounded in good science, to the attention of us all."  
Jon Kabat-Zinn

Best-selling author and founder of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program

thnx advertisement