My children are upstairs in the room directly above me, putting together a puzzle and fighting. I just heard a loud whap. Now there is crying. Also screaming. Our sitter is issuing time-outs.

Ah, siblings. My kids, 22 months apart, are best friends more often than not. But the recent winter break tested their love, to put it mildly. By the end of two-weeks spent mostly in each other's presence, a typical exchange had Older Sister declaring "I am SICK OF YOU," followed by Younger Sister screaming "GET AWAY FROM ME! Just get AWAY from me!"

Advertisement X

I find this horrifying.

Meanness—to your sibling, or anyone, ever—is not a happiness habit.

What to do? I know that most siblings fight, and that social scientists have consistently recorded high levels of hostility in sibling relationships relative to other relationships. But this is not okay with me; I want my kids to be kind to each other. My dad and his brother are lifelong best friends and business partners. My brother and I are close friends. I want this for my kids, too. But how?

Fortunately, we parents of multiple children have some good science to guide us. Here's what I take away from this research.

  1. Treat kids fairly. From a very young age, kids start monitoring how their own relationships with their parents compare to those of their siblings. What is important here is not that we treat our kids exactly the same, but that our kids believe our differential treatment is FAIR. It doesn't really matter if we parents think the ways that we treat our children differently is fair, it matters what our kids think and whether they agree with each other about it. When kids believe that their parents are treating them fairly relative to their sibling(s)—parents show similar levels of affection, praise, and discipline, for example—sibling relationships are more positive.

    Pay particular attention to warmth in this regard: When kids report that a parent's attention has decreased in warmth relative to the warmth that parent shows their sibling, it can really affect kids' happiness AND their relationship with their brother or sister. Not only do they show more symptoms of depression, but their relationships with their siblings become less warm as well.

  2. Emotion coaching is really important. Teaching kids how to identify, monitor, evaluate, and modify their emotional reactions to their siblings can have a really positive effect on sibling relationship quality. I've posted about how to teach kids this before; the goal here is to teach children to de-escalate frustrating episodes. That way, when their sibling pushes their buttons (in ways only siblings can), their negative response won't be as intense Emotion coaching also makes siblings better communicators, increasing the odds that they'll ultimately have a more positive play experience (see next suggestion).
  3. Give them positive opportunities to play. Positive play experiences help siblings lay a foundation for a life-long bond. This is related to the research on ratios between positive and negative emotions: Positive interactions between siblings need to outnumber negative ones by about five to one. One particularly good research-tested program aimed at improving sibling relationships focuses on finding things for siblings to do together that they both enjoy. Even kids who seemingly have nothing in common or with very wide age spreads can find ways to enjoy the other's company. The key is for us parents to help them find a little time each day for them to play or share a positive experience. Most kids will argue when playing together at some point; the key is to make sure that the number of positive experiences outweighs the negative ones.

    Knowing this, I try to limit the time my kids spend together when they are likely to fight. In the late afternoon, for example, my kids tend to be a little cranky and prone to bickering, and so I often encourage them to have some "alone time" or to play with a neighbor until dinner. I also try to encourage them to do something each day where I think the odds are good they'll have a positive interaction. For example, I know that when they hold their pet rats together (in a dry bathtub—it's really quite a scene) they usually dissolve into raucous laughter within a few minutes. So a few afternoons a week, I suggest that they spend some quality time together with Bella and Despero.

  4. Role-play positive responses to conflict. tools-icon-fridge.gifInevitably, siblings will have conflicts that they need to manage, and research shows that when kids are actively taught certain conflict management techniques, the quality of their sibling relationships does improve. The first goal is to help them NOT respond impulsively toward a slight, but to take the all-important first step in conflict-resolution: taking a big, deep breath. Ultimately, we want to teach kids how to respond in emotionally charged situations—to calmly communicate their individual needs and point of view to their sibling. This is best taught and practiced in neutral role-playing situations rather than in the heat of a fight. Read this post for more on conflict resolution.
  5. Think twice before intervening during a conflict, especially if you have teenagers. The "just stop it" approach, as it is known in my house, teaches kids nothing. When kids don't yet have the skills to work things out themselves, it is okay to play a "coaching" role during a conflict—emotion coaching and practicing the steps of conflict resolution outlined in this link. But when we intervene in kids' relationships, we need to be mindful that although our intentions are good, we might not be helping if we seem to take sides or exhibit favoritism. Research shows that preschool-aged kids benefit from more parental guidance during conflicts. Once kids reach adolescence, however, it is best to let kids work arguments out themselves.

For most parents, fostering close relationships between our kids is one of our greatest concerns. And rarely is the payoff as great as when kids get along well and love one another!

Do your kids get along well? If so, why? What have you done to foster sibling closeness?

© 2010 Christine Carter, Ph.D.

Join the Campaign for 100,000 Happier Parents by signing this simple pledge.

Become a fan of Raising Happiness on Facebook.

Follow Christine Carter on Twitter

Subscribe to the Happiness Matters Podcast on iTunes.

Sign up for the Raising Happiness CLASS!


Kennedy, Denise E., Kramer, Laurie, 2008, Improving Emotion Regulation and Sibling Relationship Quality: The More Fun with Sisters and Brothers Program, Family Relations, Vol. 57, Issue 5, p567-578.

Kowal, Amanda K., Krull, Jennifer L., Kramer, Laurie,2006, Shared Understanding of Parental Differential Treatment in Families., Social Development, Vol. 15 Issue 2, pp 276-295.

Shanahan, Lilly, McHale, Susan M., Crouter, Ann C., Osgood, D. Wayne, 2008, Linkages between parents' differential treatment, youth depressive symptoms, and sibling relationships, Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 70 (2), pp. 480-494.

Po Bronson & Ashley Merryman, 2009, NurtureShock New Thinking About Children.

Susan M McHale, Kimberly A Updegraff, Corinna J Tucker, Ann C Crouter, 2000, Step in or stay out? Parents' roles in adolescent siblings' relationships, Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 62, Issue 3, p 746.

Big thanks to Nila Rosen for her research assistance with this posting!

GreaterGood Tiny Logo Greater Good wants to know: Do you think this article will influence your opinions or behavior?
You May Also Enjoy

This is all wonderful information and I have found great success with the Parenting On Track program and Family Meetings to foster sibling closeness. My four children, ages 14, 12, 8, and 5 are best of friends.  By following the Parenting On Track family meeting guidelines, we appreciate each other every week, solve problems as a family, distribute household contributions and allowance.  These Family Meetings are the glue that holds all the concepts we have learned in the Parenting On Track program together.  Just last night, as my 14 year old son was helping his 8 year old sister with her homework she said to him, “I can’t wait for Saturday night when you baby sit me, because it will be our special time together- just you and me.”  Setting aside 15 minutes each week to show and receive appreciation and agree on solutions that work for all members of the family has done wonders for these siblings and their relationships with each other, their parents, and their community at large.

Jennifer | 11:07 am, January 21, 2010 | Link


I am constantly surprised how well our daughters (17months and 5 years) get along.  There is the occasional “stop touching/taking this” outburst, but the older one is really good about redirecting the younger one in these situations and is much more tolerant than I was with my sister.
I think we lucked out by their age separation (as a 4/5yo, the older one was mature enough to understand the lack of (self) control of her baby sister) and the mothering inclination of the older child.
After her sister was born, I could definitely see that our older child became more stressed, probably due to the decreased attention she was getting.  It manifested itself primarily in separation anxiety and temper tantrums, but it was NEVER directed towards her younger sister.  It was as if the older one realized that SOMETHING was amiss in her life but never connected it to the younger intruder.  I almost wished that she’d expressed some of her resentment towards her sister so that we could talk about it better.
We really had to watch ourselves to make sure we were spending enough quality time with the older sister and to make sure she was getting overshadowed by the extroverted baby.  She had been quite mom-focused, but after the new baby was born, I got to take on the confidant role to a much greater extend – to my delight.
We’ve found “Siblings Without Rivalry” a useful book to help us avoid common sibling pitfalls.  I also really liked “Honey, I Wrecked the Kids” to help me understand how my older child was expressing her unhappiness.
Kevin Henkes’ “Julius, the Baby of the World” was a wonderful book to read with our older daughter and I would recommend it highly to anyone with a new sibling in the family.

stepan | 11:26 am, January 21, 2010 | Link


January 24 is Global Belly Laugh Day. This Sunday January 24 is a perfect time to increase the positive to negative ratio for all the family.

Global Belly Laugh Day Positive Moment #1 On January 24 at 1:24 p.m. (your local time) smile, throw your arms in the air and laugh out loud. Join the Belly Laugh Bounce ‘Round the World. (Talk about where else in the world you would like to be laughing out loud).

Global Belly laugh Day Positive Moment #2 Call friends in other time zones and laugh out loud with them at 1:24 p.m. their time.

Global Belly Laugh Day Positive Moment #3 choose a Laugh Out Loud Word of the Day. At the beginning of the day on January 24 have each member of the family write down word on a piece of paper. Draw the word from a container. This is the word of the day. Laugh out loud when you hear the word.

Global Belly Laugh Day Positive Moment #4 If you are in the car laugh at every stop sign or stop light.

Global Belly Laugh Day Positive Moment #5

Create a Happy Go Fish Game – courtesy of

The Playful Spirit Rachel http://tinyurl.com/ygyzn2y

Ask your kids to create activities to celebrate the great gift of laughter on Global Belly Laugh Day, January 24.

I will post their ideas on http://www.bellylaughday.com

Send me your creative, playful, fun and positive moments.

with a smile and a belly laugh,

Elaine Helle


Elaine Helle | 3:19 pm, January 21, 2010 | Link


My daughters are young adults now, but here are some reflections on the past and present.

First, we used many of the tools you suggest above.  In particular, we did a lot of emotion coaching and teaching conflict resolution.  It paid off in the moment and as they grew.  (By the way, they would comment on MY emotions as well, which was useful all around.  For example, I would say something in a forceful tone.  One of them would ask if I was angry.  This forced me to consider–was I angry?  If not, what made me appear angry?  If so, why and how could I explain it to them?  This is an INCREDIBLY useful exercise for all concerned.)

A couple of additional points:

First, personalities matter a lot.  M was internally focused and had impulse control problems.  She acted out against her sister in physical, obvious ways. D was very aware of people and social situations and very much in control of herself.  She provoked her sister in ways that were often hard to define.  In that circumstance “fair,” as you’ve defined it, was difficult to achieve.  We worked very hard to prevent M from seeing herself as the “bad” child and D from seeing herself as the “good” child.  We were successful–but in the short-term, that wasn’t obvious.  It’s only been in the last few years that each young woman has fully integrated both sides of herself.

Second, my daughters are separated by 2 1/2 years.  There were periods of time when they would play well together.  Then M, the older one, would move to another developmental stage, leaving D behind.  This was true at 9, at 13, and even now–as they each find different adult paths.

Patricia M. | 11:51 pm, January 26, 2010 | Link

blog comments powered by Disqus